Types of Reading & Writing
in a Comprehensive Literacy Program

Mooney's Literacy Framework/ Madeline Hunter's Research
What it looks like in WRITING
What it looks like in READING

(I do)
Writing TO:
Modeled Writing
Teacher demonstrates writing process, style and/or strategies (for whole class or small group) and thinks aloud (metacognition). Students observe, comment, and/or take notes.
Reading TO:
Read Aloud
Teacher reads the story/text (to whole class or small group) in order to convey content, provide exposure to and appreciation of varied literature, etc.

(We do with much support)
Writing WITH: Collaborative (or Shared) Writing
Teacher and whole class or small group generate the message together and how to write it. Teacher acts as scribe while offering prompts and modeling writing behaviors.
Reading WITH:
Shared Reading

Teacher and whole class or small group read/reread together (songs, poems, stories). Teacher encourages participation and models fluency, expression, reading strategies, etc.

(We do with little support)
Writing WITH & BY: Interactive/Guided Writing
Teacher meets with whole class or small group to apply writing strategies and knowledge. The message may be group-elicited - students are invited/encouraged to contribute to the chart/board story. (The pen is shared). Teacher only fills in unknown information.
Reading WITH & BY: Guided Reading
Based on knowledge of students, teacher selects appropriate reading texts and meets with small groups of similar abilities, providing feedback while students independently apply strategies and read text.

(You do)
Writing BY:
Independent Writing
Students write without teacher involvement i.e. journal-writing, writer's workshop, literature response logs, etc.
Reading BY:
Independent Reading
Students choose to read and enjoy reading assigned or self-selected text without teacher direction/support.

Adapted from the Pendergast School District, Phoenix, AZ (http://pendergast.k12.az.us/bal.htm)

Click here to download this table as a Word document--> To With and By Reading and Writing.doc